The causes of diabetes differ depending on the individual’s genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health, and environmental factors. There are no common single diabetes causes that are suitable for every type of diabetes because the cause of diabetes varies based on the individuals’ and the type. For example, the causes of type 1 diabetes vary significantly from the cause of gestational diabetes. Also, the causes of type 2 diabetes are different from the cause of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas cannot secret insulin whilst type 2 diabetes is the resistance of the body to insulin.
Symptoms of Diabetes Include:
Increased thirst (polydipsia)
Frequent urination (polyuria)
Fatigue or tiredness
Numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
Sores that do not heal
Unexplained weight loss or weight gain
In a matter of weeks, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start fast but the symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop gradually over several years and these symptoms can be so unnoticed. Several individuals with type 2 diabetes have no visible symptoms. Certain people are not aware they have the disease until they suffered diabetes-related problems, for example, blurred vision or heart trouble.
What Causes Type 1 Diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is brought about by the immune system damaging the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. This leads to diabetes by rending the body not to take enough insulin to function properly. This situation is often referred to as an autoimmune reaction because the body is waging war against itself.
There are no precise causes of type 1 diabetes however the following triggers are prime suspect:
Viral or bacterial infection
Chemical toxins within food
Unknown element causing an autoimmune reaction
An underlying genetic character may also be a type 1 diabetes cause.
What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?
This is the most common type of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes causes are generally multifactorial.
It is caused by several factors which include lifestyle and dietary factors as well as genes.
Overweight, obese, and physical inactivity
Individuals are more susceptible to develop type 2 diabetes if they are physically inactive and overweight or obese. Excessive weight often leads to insulin resistance and is common in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Where the fat is located in the body also makes a difference. Extra abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart, and blood vessel ailment.
Usually, type 2 diabetes starts with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance can be described as a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells are unable to utilize insulin very well. Consequently, the body needs more insulin to help glucose move into the cells. at the initial stage, the pancreas produces more insulin to meet up with extra demand but over time the pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin and blood glucose levels increase.
Genes and family history
As in type 1 diabetes, some genes may make individuals more prone to develop type 2 diabetes. The disease tends to run in families and happens more often across racial/ethnic groups.
Similarly, a gene can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing an individual’s predisposition to become overweight or obese.
What Causes Gestational Diabetes?
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. It is believed to be caused by hormonal changes in pregnancy as well as genetic and lifestyle factors.
Suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome
Have had a large baby weighing over 9lb
Hormones secreted by the placenta NIH external link add to insulin resistance, which happens in all women during late pregnancy. Most pregnant women can produce sufficient insulin to overwhelmed insulin resistance but some cannot. Gestational diabetes occurs when the beta cells in the pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin.
Gestational diabetes is also linked to extra weight just like type 2 diabetes. Women who are overweight or obese may already experience insulin resistance when they get pregnant. Accumulating excess weight during pregnancy may also be a factor.
Hormonal changes, extra weight, and family history are contributory factors to gestational diabetes.
Genes and family history
A family history of diabetes is an indication that a woman will develop gestational diabetes.
Genes also play a role in this development.
Other Causes of Diabetes
Genetic mutations, other diseases, damage to the pancreas, and certain medicines may also cause diabetes.
Monogenic diabetes is a result of mutations, or changes, in a single gene.
These changes are generally run in the families but sometimes the mutation of a gene occurs of its own volition. The majority of these gene mutations cause diabetes by making the pancreas unable to produce insulin.
The most well-known types of monogenetic diabetes are:
1. Neonatal diabetes
Neonatal diabetes occurs in the first six months of life.
2. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY).
Physicians generally diagnose MODY during puberty or early adulthood, but sometimes the disease remains undiagnosed until later in life.
Cystic fibrosis produces thick mucus that leads to scarring of the pancreas. This scarring can hinder the pancreas from producing sufficient insulin.
This causes the body to store iron excessively. If left untreated, iron can build in and destroy the pancreas and other organs.
Certain hormonal diseases cause the body to secrete an excess of some hormones which sometimes cause insulin resistance and diabetes.
Cushing’s syndrome occurs when the body produces too much cortisol (the “stress hormone”).
Acromegaly occurs when the body produces excess growth hormone.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces excess thyroid hormone.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).
One of the root causes of PCOS is obesity-linked insulin resistance, which may also increase the risk of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Patients with glucagonoma may experience diabetes because of a lack of balance between levels of insulin production and glucagon production.
Damage to or Removal of the pancreas
Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and trauma can all damage the beta cells or make them less able to produce insulin, which ultimately leads to diabetes.
If the damaged pancreas is removed, diabetes will occur because of the loss of the beta cells.
Sometimes certain medicines can harm beta cells or upset the way insulin works.
Niacin, a type of vitamin B3
Certain types of diuretics also called water pills
Drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Pentamidine, a drug used to treat a type of pneumonia
Glucocorticoids—medicines used to treat inflammatory illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis.
Anti-rejection medicines used to help stop the body from rejecting a transplanted organ
Statins, which are medicines to reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, can somewhat increase the chance that individuals will develop diabetes.
All the same, statins help protect individuals from heart disease and stroke. For this reason, the immense benefits of taking statins dwarf the small chance that individuals could develop diabetes.
If you take any of these medicines and are worried about their side effects, talk with your doctor.